Topic: Share of adopted girl in the inheritance of guardian and the widow deprived of the inheritance by brothers of the deceased    (No-3913)

Q Asalam o Alikum. I am an adopted girl. My real father gave me to his little brother who does not have any children. My father who adopted me died one year ago and now problem of his property and inheritance has been started. Brothers of my father claims that my mother and me don't have any portion in my father’s property as i am adopted (ly-palak) and my mother didn't give birth to his children. So all property will go to his brothers. I want to know what Quean and Hadis says about this situation.
Thank you

a1) It should be noted that the adopted daughter is not in the order of the real daughter, so she does not have rights or share in the inheritance of the person who adopted her, However, during his life he can make the adopted daughter owner of an item by giving it as a gift, similarly he can bequeath up to one third of inheritance to the adopted daughter.
2) After the death of the person who adopted the girl, the widow does have a share in his property. Therefore, if the there weren't any children, the widow will get quarter of the total wealth after paying the upfront costs (funeral, will and loan).
It is utter injustice by the brother of the deceased to not give the due share in property to the widow. Qur'an and Hadith communicate severe commination for such people
وَتَأْكُلُونَ التُّرَاثَ أَكْلًا لَّمًّاO وَتُحِبُّونَ الْمَالَ حُبًّا جَمًّاO
(سورۃ الفجر، الایۃ)
Translation: And you devour inhertance with a sweeping gulp (without giving share to the deserving), And love wealth, an excessive love.
Hazrat Saeed bin Zaid (رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ) says that Prophet ﷺ said, Whoever takes an inch of land unjustly, on the day of Resurrection the same amount of land from all seven earths will put around his neck as gorget.
(مشكوة المصابيح، ج1، ص254، باب الغصب والعاریة، ط: قدیمی)
It is mentioned in another hadith. Hazrat Anas ( رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ ) says, Prophet ﷺ said, Whoever cuts the inheritance of his heir (i.e. he does not the share), then on the Day of Judgment Allah will cut off his entitlement of Paradise.
The conclusion is that the wife of the deceased is a legal heir in the heredity of the deceased but adopted daughter is not a legal heir as per Shariah


القرآن الکریم: (الأحزاب، الایہ: 4- 5)
وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَاءَكُمْ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِي السَّبِيلَo ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبَائِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا اٰبَاءَهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَمَوَالِيكُمْ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَكِنْ مَا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًاo

و قوله تعالی: (النساء، الایہ: 12)
وَلَهُنَّ ٱلرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ۔۔۔۔الخ

التفسیر المظھری: (284/7)
فلا یثبت بالتبنی شئی من الاحکام البنوة من الارث وحرمة النکاح وغیر ذلک۔

مشکوۃ المصابیح: (باب الغصب و العاریة، 254/1، ط: قدیمی)
"عن سعيد بن زيد قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «من أخذ شبراً من الأرض ظلماً؛ فإنه يطوقه يوم القيامة من سبع أرضين»".

و فیھا ایضاً: (باب الوصایا، 266/1، ط: قدیمی)
"وعن أنس قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «من قطع ميراث وارثه قطع الله ميراثه من الجنة يوم القيامة» . رواه ابن ماجه".

Allah Knows Best
Darulifta AlIkhlas,Karachi

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